What Is Epidemics?
Epidemic Definition: An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population. For example, increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species and genetic change in the pathogen reservoir or the introduction of an emerging pathogen to a host population by movement of pathogen or host.
Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded. Pandemic definition: An epidemic may be restricted to one location however if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people it may be termed a Pandemic. The declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence epidemics for certain diseases such as influenza are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidents above this baseline a few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease such as the common cold would not.
There are several changes that may occur in an infectious agent that may trigger an epidemic. These include 55 increased virulence introductions into a novel setting changes in host susceptibility to the infectious agent an epidemic disease is not required to be contagious and the term has been a to West Nile fever and the obesity epidemic. For example, by the World Health Organization among others the conditions which govern the outbreak of epidemics include infected food supplies such as contaminated drinking water and the migration of populations of certain animals such as rats or mosquitoes. Which can active disease vectors certain epidemics occur at certain seasons for example whooping cough occurs in spring whereas measles produces two epidemics, one in winter and one in March influenza the common cold and other infections of the upper respiratory tract such a sore throat occur predominantly in the winter.
There is another variation both as regards the number of people affected and the number who die in successive epidemics the severity of successive epidemics rises and falls over periods of five or ten years.
The term epidemic derives from a word form attributed to Homer’s Odyssey which later took its medical meaning from the epidemics
How To Prevent Epidemics?
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, which basically means, that it is much easier to prevent illness, than it is to treat it.
- Practice Good Hygiene
One of the most widely recognized ways that disease-causing germs are spread is through hand-to-hand contact, and noticeable all around when somebody coughs or sneezes. A revealed cough or sneeze can splash germs up to 10 feet. safeguard your companions, and family, by covering your mouth, and nose with a tissue in the event that you cough or sneeze. On the off chance that you don’t have a tissue, it’s ideal to cough or sneeze into the law breaker of your elbow, instead of leaving the cough or sneeze revealed. In the wake of coughing or sniffling, it is imperative to wash your hands. For a careful clean, wash your hands with cleanser and warm water for in any event 15 seconds, remember to scour the backs of your hands, among fingers, and under fingernails It is likewise significant, to wash hands when planning or eating nourishment, in the wake of utilizing the bathroom or changing a diaper, in the wake of taking care of trash, when treating a slice or wound or watching out for a wiped out individual, in the wake of contacting a pet or other creature, and before you do any movement that includes placing your fingers in or close to your eyes or mouth.
- Stay Up-to-date on Your Immunizations.
Vaccines for the most part come as an infusion or oral drops. Vaccines are normally a dead or debilitates strain of a virus, that when acquainted with your body advances the creation of antibodies. Antibodies enable your body to perceive the pathogenic strain of the virus, on the off chance that you happen to be presented to it. Along these lines’ vaccines give you insusceptibility to specific diseases, on the off chance that you are safe your body can oppose a virus when it assaults and you don’t encounter indications of the disease. Moreover, you can’t spread it to other individuals. Inoculations; along these lines, reinforce your resistant framework.
- Practice food safety techniques.
The well being of your nourishment is reliant upon appropriate capacity, and refrigeration and legitimate dealing with during planning, and cooking. Sustenance can ruin or wind up sullied if the nourishment handlers are wiped out, and inhale on sustenance or neglect to wash their hands planning nourishment. Fecal issue can likewise taint sustenance if the preparer neglects to wash hands in the wake of utilizing the bathroom or contacting creatures. Sustenance took a gander at an inappropriate temperature can ruin along these lines, ensure that things requiring refrigeration remain cool. Sustenance can likewise ruin, in the event that they come into contact with certain different nourishment, similar to crude meat. At the point when two nourishment contact and ruin it’s called cross-contamination. A case of cross-contamination would be, in the event that you utilized a blade and slicing board to cut crude meat, and afterward utilized a similar blade and slicing board to plan crude vegetables. The vegetables would be tainted by the crude meat and could cause food contamination, whenever expended. To maintain a strategic distance from cross-contamination make certain to wash hands dishes and utensils between getting ready various kinds of sustenance.
- Avoid Risky Behaviors
Any diseases can be spread through body liquids, similar to blood, semen, pre fundamental liquid, and rectal bodily fluid. Participating in sexual action with numerous accomplices or neglecting to utilize security. Some STD, similar to Chlamydia and Gonorrhea can be relieved with anti-infection agents in any case, others like herpes and HIV are viral and can’t be restored. Somebody who contracts herpes will live with it for an incredible remainder. HIV is a virus that assaults the insusceptible framework and prompts AIDS.
A huge number of individuals bite the dust every year from helps related ailment, however rising treatment choices are making it workable for HIV contaminated individuals to live longer than they did previously. HIV can be contracted by sexual contact as well as, additionally using illicit intravenous medications, sharing needles, or utilizing debased or non-clean needles, makes this conduct extra hazardous and the odds of contracting blood-borne pathogens turns out to be considerably higher. Maintaining a strategic distance from hazardous practices like intravenous medication use, and unprotected sex, can enormously lessen the probability of contracting diseases like HIV.